A Blockchain-Based Smart Contract System for Healthcare Management

This 24-page document provides you with a summary of the results of our health care research and consultation: Agbo, C., Mahmoud, Q., and Eklund, J. (2019). Blockchain Technology in Healthcare: A Systematic Review. Healthcare 7, 56. doi:10.3390/healthcare7020056 There are cases in which the quality or accuracy of the data can only be ensured if a smart contract is notarized by third parties. For example, if a biomedical database is queried, the applicant may need assurance that the data is valid [8]. Across the entire range of services in the healthcare sector, the volume of data in HIS is huge, complex and heterogeneous. In addition, the number of poorly integrated dependent and independent HEIs, constant updates of existing data, inconsistent representations and data structures, missing and incomplete data, and the difficulty of finding the necessary answers in large datasets returned by queries [17] make knowledge discovery difficult and costly. The DLT offers the possibility of developing a company bus or a searchable index [8]. In addition, DLT applications have been developed in the areas of supply chain management and provenance tracking, which is particularly useful for tracking medicines with a chain of custody and allows tracking where medicines come from or where they come from, and origin tracing makes it possible to trace counterfeit medicines that may have found their way into the supply chain [18]. Another example of how accurate feedback on queries facilitates the collection of knowledge from data is the identification of pandemics or epidemics by isolating, detecting, and promoting environmental conditions that affect public health [19].

The incentive platform is based on a cryptocurrency blockchain with a specially developed incentive protocol. Algorithm 4 offers an incentive or reward to patients who grant access to their records. When a patient registers for the service through the API (Figure 8), their account creates a unique address for authorization and identification. A cryptographic wallet for patients will be installed, which will allow the patient to receive rewards from the system. It is also necessary to link the system to appointment displays and recipe repetitions. The following cases show how the incentive is taken into account in relation to the patient`s wallet. How blockchain systems could help secure IoT devices with remote monitoring: None of the studies found suggest solving healthcare access problems compared to underserved communities. Studies typically focus on technology frameworks or variations in billing and security systems.

Therefore, this study examines equality, engagement, and incentives for underserved communities through the use of blockchain technology in the design of a PMS. The cost of providing smart contracts is set as the standard gas price of ten (10) gwei. Different smart contract applications consume different amounts of gas. Table 3 and Figure 11 illustrate the gas consumption of the two consensus mechanisms simulated in the system. To calculate the transaction costs and execution costs of PoS and PoW, two algorithms are provided for the smart contract. The minimum poS transaction and execution gas is 3,000,000 with a file size of 75 KB. The minimum transaction gas for PoW is 28,000,000. The experimental analysis shows that PoS is more efficient than PoW in terms of gas consumption both in the transaction and in the execution of blocks and the processing of smart contracts. PoW requires a lot of computing power to check blocks and requires significant execution time.

This section describes how to use encryption keys. Cryptographic keys play an important role in data protection [51,52]. Public/private key pairs are used to ensure the confidentiality of ptK transactions when the record passes through untrusted channels [53,54]. In BlockPres, there are several PTK, DTK, NK, AD, PHK and NSK entities and so the system creates keys for each entity using a cryptographic method called El Gamal [55,56,57]. The key pair of an entity is symbolized by PKk and SKk, where PKk is a public key of an entity and SKk is a private or secret key of an entity. In addition, SKk must be kept secret by the entity, while PKk can be distributed among healthcare providers and other entities in the system. Therefore, the public key set is PKk=(PK1,PK2,PK3,PK4,⋯PKk). The secret or private key relationship is established between entity A and B using a secure algorithm (e.B. AES) [57]. A Diffie-Hellman key exchange mechanism is responsible for establishing keys before communication between A and B takes place, and only entities that communicate with each other are known [58,59,60]. Keys are necessary to ensure the integrity, security, and authenticity of transactions when both entities generate transactions [38,52]. This type of technology is crucial in an industry like healthcare, which has complex relationships with different agents.

Since healthcare processes are associated with banks, governments, legal institutions, and individual payers, contract enforcement is often complicated. By using smart contracts, the entire transaction process is streamlined and simplified. This includes payment processing, claims adjudication, and other processes that typically require lawyers and months of waiting. The ability to consolidate these processes will improve revenue performance and health care provider referral. It will also mean fewer complaints and headaches. Health systems in all countries and regions are grappling with the problem of data silos, which means that patients and their healthcare providers have an incomplete view of medical history. In 2016, Johns Hopkins University published a study showing that the third leading cause of death in the United States was medical errors resulting from poorly coordinated care, such as planned actions. B that were not performed as planned, or errors of omission in patient records. Companies such as Chronicled and Curisium offer blockchain-based systems that enable various healthcare players, such as pharmaceutical companies, medical device OEMs, wholesalers, insurers, and healthcare providers, to authenticate their identity as organizations, record contract details, and track transactions of goods and services, and payment processing details for those goods and services. Such an environment goes beyond supply chain management and also allows healthcare business partners and insurance companies to operate on the basis of fully digital and partially automated contractual terms. In BlockPres, a set of attributes is defined as a transaction related to the PTK recipe record, and the information in the record is encrypted between sender and recipient with SK.

In this case, the sender and recipient can be PTK, DTK, healthcare providers and vice versa. There are three types of transactions described in the following sections: Genesis Transaction (TxGen), DB Transaction (TXDB), and PUbc Transaction (TXPUbc). The smart contract contains the functions to add, delete, access and retrieve files (Figure 12 and Table 4). Gas is consumed when a healthcare provider adds a file to the blockchain network, deletes an existing file from the network with the permission of the record owner, accesses a file when a patient visits another healthcare provider, and retrieves it. Here, the files are prescriptions generated by the healthcare provider and uploaded into the smart contract. Figure 12 and Table 4 show the minimum transaction and execution costs of the features deployed on smart contracts. This section contains descriptions of the entities or system participants involved in BlockPres. To increase the efficiency of patient care and build trust in the system, health care providers want to share patient records with their colleagues.

The framework consists of system components that include the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MOH), healthNZ and healthcare providers such as doctors, nurses, hospitals and pharmacies [37]. Keywords: medical blockchain, digital healthcare, patient data management, electronic medical records, decentralized secure storage, tracking of health assets A number of factors can be used to identify a group as an underserved community. .

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