This law will now allow farmers to sell APMCs outside of their designated districts, directly promoting their interaction with the market. All three bills aim to change agriculture in India. It would be beneficial to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of these bills through the prism of the market economy and the possible effects on the socio-economic situation of agriculture. Earlier this year, the Union government passed three highly controversial agricultural laws in parliament. The Agricultural Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, which aims to dismantle existing monopolies in trade and distribution, is appreciated by the Food Corporation of India (FCI) and the Agricultural Products Market (APMC). Note that the regulations do not repeal existing CMPA laws (as Bihar does), but limit the regulation of CMDAs to the physical limits of markets under their control. Regulation can lead to increased competition, which can also make APMCs more efficient in providing cost-effective marketing services.  In addition, for farmers who sell their products outside of CMPA markets, prices in place in CMPA markets can serve as a target price, contributing to better pricing for farmers. . F.No. 26011/3/2020-M.II., Agricultural Marketing Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, 5 June 2020. The Essential Products Act also does not apply if agricultural products are purchased under the Agricultural Agreement.
The bill was passed collectively as part of the 2020 Farm Bills. The Act provided for a three-stage dispute settlement mechanism by the conciliation body, the subdivision judge and the appellate authority. The agreement was to provide for a conciliation body and a conciliation procedure for the settlement of disputes.  The law has been widely criticized by farmers across the country, particularly in Punjab and Haryana. Without any regulation, the interests of farmers will be neglected.   The agricultural contract may be amended or terminated at any time by mutual agreement between the parties. It is also difficult to ensure that big business does not enslave already marginalized farmers. By allowing oral and written contracts, the Centre places farmers at the vulnerable end of the agreement without redress. (a) a guaranteed price to be paid for those products; When the development push took this turn, he also left the agricultural sector, which had to deal with outdated laws and systems.
The Farmers` Agreement on Price Insurance and the Agricultural Services Bill create opportunities for farmers to engage in contract farming, sell their products outside the CMPA and expand their market access. Agricultural product exemptions [SECTION 7] The second is the Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, which focuses on creating opportunities for farmers to engage in contract farming through oral or written contracts. This law paves the way for farmers to access national markets and businesses. (b) a clear price reference for any additional amount above the guaranteed price, including the premium or premium, in order to ensure the best value for the farmer, and that price reference may be linked to the prices in force at a given AMCPA yard or to an electronic trading and trading platform or other appropriate reference prices. Quality and standards relating to pesticide residues, food safety, “good agricultural practices” and “labour and social development” can also be included in the agreement. The Parties may require that such mutually acceptable qualities, qualities and standards be checked and certified by third parties during the cultivation or rearing process or at the time of delivery. Where breeding agreements concern seed production, the sponsor shall pay the farmer at least two-thirds of the agreed amount at the time of delivery and the balance “after appropriate certification”, but no later than 30 days after delivery. In other cases, promoters may pay the agreed amount at the time of acceptance of delivery of agricultural products and issue a receipt with the details of the sale. The state government may prescribe how payments to farmers are to be made. The bills will empower farmers through better market access and increased opportunities for business outcomes.
By eliminating the CMPA`s monopoly, the bills eliminate the long-standing challenge of intermediaries. Invoices could also lead to an open market that improves prices, supply chain efficiency and dynamic market linkages. . Essential Raw Materials (Amendment) Regulations, 2020, Ministry of Consumption, Food and Public Distribution, June 5, 2020. As soon as a farmer enters into an agricultural contract, he is exempt from the state law regarding the regulation of the sale and purchase of agricultural products. Agricultural agreements may include the conditions of supply of agricultural products – including delivery time, quality, quality, standards and price of products – and agricultural services. An agricultural agreement is a written agreement between a farmer and a “promoter”, another farmer or a third party prior to the production or breeding of agricultural products of a predetermined quality, in which the promoter undertakes to purchase that production from the farmer and to provide agricultural services. A guarantor refers to the person who has entered into an agreement with the farmer for the purchase of agricultural products. Market liberalization will introduce commercial and private investment in the sector. These investments can strengthen infrastructure, improve instruments and modernise the sector. The open market structure also allows farmers to sell their products online, a significant change in an increasingly digital world.
On the 14th. In September 2020, the Lok Sabha introduced three bills “to transform agriculture in the country and increase farmers` incomes” – the Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020; the Agricultural Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill 2020; and the Essential Products Amendment Bill, 2020. By amending the Essential Goods Act, 1995, the Government is removing restrictions on the storage of multiple goods. In this way, the government intends to stabilize prices by increasing the efficiency of the supply chain through access to inventory. The Farmers` Price Insurance and Agricultural Services (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement Act, 2020 establishes a national framework for contract cultivation through an agreement between a farmer and a buyer prior to the production or breeding of agricultural products.   In order to facilitate such an agreement, the government may issue guidelines with model agreements. The Trade and Commerce Regulations provide buyers with the freedom to purchase agricultural products outside of CMPA markets without having a licence or paying fees to the CMPA. The Contract Cultivation Ordinance provides buyers and farmers with a framework for concluding a contract (before the start of a harvest season) that guarantees farmers a minimum price and buyers a secure supply. The third regulation amends the Basic Materials Act so that stock limits for agricultural products can only be imposed in the event of a sharp increase in retail prices and exempts participants and exporters in the value chain from any stock limits. All three regulations aim to increase buyers` availability for farmers` products by allowing them to act freely without licensing or stock restrictions, so that increased competition between them leads to better prices for farmers.  Although the regulations are intended to liberalize trade and increase the number of buyers, this may not be enough to attract more buyers.
The conditions relating to the quality, quality and standards of agricultural products are mutually agreed and the above-mentioned standards or qualities, quality, are expressly mentioned in the collective agreement. No farmer can enter into an agricultural agreement “deviating from the rights of a partial tenant”. The parties to an agricultural agreement may, by mutual agreement, amend or terminate the agreement for any “reasonable” reason. A farmer is defined as a person who produces agricultural products himself or with the help of salaried workers. This includes agricultural producer organizations, which are associations or groups of farmers registered or supported under central or state government laws or programs. NOTE: This Bill replaces the Farmers` Agricultural Services and Price Insurance and Agricultural Services Agreement (Empowerment and Protection) Order, 2020. Therefore, please take note of our Legislative Brief on Agricultural Regulation, 2020. . .